Archive for May, 2010

BHIKKHUS – IT IS YOUR DUTY TO SAVE THE VINAYA BHIKKHUNI PATIMOKKHA
May 29, 2010

‘Continue, Bhikkhus, in the practice of Right Conduct, adhering to the Vinaya; continue enclosed by the restraint of the Vinaya, devoted to uprightness in life; train yourselves according to the Vinaya in all its Precepts, in all its Rules, taking them upon you in the sense of the danger in the least offence.”  [Akankheyya Sutta].

FOLLOW THE FOOT-PRINTS OF THE TATHAGATA:

  “Now, at that time Gautama Buddha, the Exalted One was dwelling near Savatthi, in East Park, at the house of Migara’s mother.  And on that occasion He was seated surrounded by the Bhikkhu Sangha, and it was the Uposatha.

Then, the Venerable Bhikkhu Ananda, as the night advanced and the first watch was passing, arose from his seat, put his outer robes over one shoulder, and bowing towards Gautama Buddha, the Exalted One, with folded palms, said to the Exalted One, Gautama Buddha:

‘Lord, the night is far advanced.  The first watch is passing.  Long hath the Bhikkhu Sangha been sitting here. Let my Lord, Gautama Buddha, the Exalted One recite the Patimokkha to the Bhikkhus.’ 

At these words the Exalted One, Gautama Buddha, was silent.

Then a second time, when the second watch was passing, the Venerable Bhikkhu Ananda arose and made the same request.  But the Exalted One, Gautama Buddha, was silent.

 And yet a third time, when the third watch was passing, the Venerable Bhikkhu Ananda rose from his seat and made the same request.  Then Gautama Buddha, the Exalted One said:

 “The assembly is not perfectly pure, Ananda.’

Then thought the Venerable Bhikkhu Moggallana the Great:

 ‘Concerning what person, I wonder, does the Exalted One, Gautama Buddha say this?’

And the Venerable Bhikkhu Moggallana the Great surveyed in mind the whole Bhikkhu Sangha, reading their thoughts with his [by way of the iddhi-power of clairvoyance].  

And the Venerable Bhikkhu Moggallana the Great beheld that person, one of evil conduct, of wicked nature, an impure and suspicious liver, one who covered up his deeds, one who was no recluse though claiming to be one, one who was unchaste though claiming to be chaste, inwardly foul, full of lusts, a sink of filth – sitting there amid the Sangha of Bhikkhus.  And, beholding him, he rose from his seat, went up to him and said:

‘Rise up, friend!  You are seen by the Exalted One, Gautama Buddha! You have no part nor lot with the Bhikkhus!’

But at these words that man was silent.

Then did the Venerable Bhikkhu Moggallana the Great repeat his words, and again a third time.  But a third time also that man was silent.

Then the Venerable Moggallana the Great took that man by the arm, and put him outside the door and drew the bolt, went to the Exalted One and said:

‘Lord, that person is put out.  Quite pure is the assembly, Lord.  Let my Lord Gautama Buddha the Exalted One recite the Patimokkha to the Bhikkhus.’

‘Strange it is Moggallana!  Wonderful it is, Moggallana, that that infatuated person [so I call him] should wait till taken by the arm!’

Then the Exalted One Gautama Buddha addressed the Bhikkhus saying:

‘From this time forth, Bhikkhus, I myself will not observe the Uposatha and recite the Patimokkha.  It is not fitting, Bhikkhus, it is inopportune for the Tathagata to observe the Uposatha and recite the Patimokkha when the assembly is not perfectly pure.’  [Udana, v.5]

Then Gautama Buddha the Exalted One recited:

THE EIGHT WONDERS OF THE MIGHTY OCEAN

 “Just, Bhikkhus, as the mighty ocean deepens and slopes gradually down, hollow after hollow, not plunging by a sudden precipice – even so, Bhikkhus, in this Dhamma-Vinaya the training is gradual progress is gradual, it goes step by step, there is no sudden penetration to insight.

Now since this is so, Bhikkhus, this is the first marvel and wonder of this Dhamma-Vinaya, seeing which again and again Bhikkhus take delight therein.

Again, Bhikkhus, just as the mighty ocean is by nature established and passes not its bounds, even so, Bhikkhus, the charge [Sikkhapadam] which I have delivered to my Bhikkhus, that charge they do not overpass, even at the cost of life.

That, Bhikkhus, is the second marvel and wonder of this Dhamma-Vinaya, seeing which again and again Bhikkhus take delight therein.

Just as, Bhikkhus, the mighty ocean hath no part nor lot with a dead body, for whatsoever dead body is put into the mighty ocean, straighway it washes it ashore and throws it up on dry land; even so, Bhikkhus, whatsoever person there be – of evil conduct, of wicked nature, an impure and suspicious liver, one who covers up his deeds, one who is no recluse though claiming to be one, one who is unchaste though claiming to be chaste, one inwardly foul, full of lusts, a sink of filth – with an one the Bhikkhu Sangha hath no part nor lot, but straightway, on meeting with him, refuses him.  Though seated amid the Sangha of Bhikkhus, yet far is he from the Buddha Sangha, and far is the Buddha Sangha from that person.

Inasmuch, then, as such a person is rejected this is the third marvel and wonder of this Dhamma-Vinaya, seeing which again and again Bhikkhus take delight therein.’

No Caste or Change in the Buddha Sangha

Just as, Bhikkhus, the great rivers, namely, Ganga, Yamuna, Aciravati, Sarabhu, and Mahi on reaching the mighty ocean renounce their former names and lineage and one and all are reckoned as the mighty ocean, even so, Bhikkhus, do the four castes, the Ariyas, the Vessas, the Suddas and the Brahmins, go forth from home to the homeless life under the Dhamma-Vinaya of the Tathagata and renounce their former names and lineage, and are reckoned just as recluses, sons of the Sakya.  Inasmuch as this is so, this is the fourth marvel and wonder, Bhikkhus, of the Dhamma-Vinaya, seeing which again and again Bhikkhus take delight therein.

Just as, Bhikkhus, all the streams in the world reach the mighty ocean, and all rain from the sky falls into it; yet is no emptying or filling thereof seen; even so, Bhikkhus, though many Bhikkhus pass away with Parinibbana which hath no condition of rebirth remaining, yet thereby no emptying nor filling of that passing away is seen; even so, Bhikkhus, this is the fifth marvel and wonder of the Dhamma-Vinaya, seeing which again and again the Bhikkhus take delight therein.

Release is the Goal

Just as, Bhikkhus, the mighty ocean hath but one savour, the savour of salt, even so, Bhikkhus, hath the Dhamma-Vinaya but one savour, the savour of release.  Since this is so, this is the sixth marvel and wonder of the Dhamma-Vinaya, seeing which again and again the Bhikkhus take delight therein.

The Gems

Just as, Bhikkhus, the mighty ocean has many a gem of divers sorts, such as the pearl, the diamond, catseye, chank, rock-crystal, coral, silver, gold, ruby, emerald, even so, Bhikkhus, hath this Dhamma-Vinaya many a gem of divers sorts, to wit – the Four Earnest Contemplations, the Four Best Efforts, the Four Ways of Will Power, the Five Controlling Faculties, the Five Powers, the Seven Limbs of Wisdom, the Ariyan Eightfold Path.  Insofar, Bhikkhus, as the Dhamma-Vinaya is such, this is the seventh marvel and wonder of this Dhamma-Vinaya, seeing which again and again the Bhikkhus take delight therein.

The Fruit

Just as, Bhikkhus, the mighty ocean is the haunt of mighty creatures, such as these: the leviathan, the whale, the great fish, the sea-devas, the sea-serpents, and the mermaids; just as in the mighty ocean there are monsters whose Atta-bhavo [being] spreads for one, two, three, four, five hundreds of yojanas; even so, Bhikkhus, this Dhamma-Vinaya is the haunt of mighty ones, amongst them these: the Stream-winner and the Winner of the Fruits of a Stream-winner; a Once-returner and the winner of the Fruits of a Once-returner; a Never-returner and the Winner of the Fruits of a Never-returner; an Arhat and the Winner of the Fruits of Arhatship.  Since this is so, this is the eight marvel and wonder of this Dhamma-Vinaya, seeing which again and again Bhikkhus take delight therein.’

Thereupon Gautama Buddha, the Exalted One, seeing the reality of all that, uttered thrice these inspired words:

‘Through the thatched roof the rain it goes, but not through what is open.  Then open what is covered up, and rain shall reach thee not.* [Udana, v.5, and Vinaya, ii.9]

WHAT THE BUDDHA DID TO BHIKKHU DEVADATTA, WHO MADE A SCHISM IN THE BUDDHA SANGHA

The Disappointed Ambition of Bhikkhu Devadatta

 ‘Now at that time the Exalted One Gautama Buddha was teaching, surrounded by a great company which contained the Rajah and his Court.

Then Bhikkhu Devadatta, [1] rising from his seat and throwing his upper robe over one shoulder, bowed towards Gautama Buddha the Exalted One with folded palms and said:

‘My Lord, the Exalted One is now grown old, is aged, far gone in years, He has come to life’s end.  Let now my Lord live without worry.  Let Him dwell, given to such happiness as this life contains.  Let Him hand over the care of the Buddha Sangha unto me, and I will take charge of the Buddha Sangha.’

‘Enough, Devadatta!’ – said the Exalted One Gautama Buddha –  ‘Seek not to take charge of the Buddha Sangha!’

Then a second time and yet a third time did Bhikkhu Devadatta make the same request and get the same reply. Then said Gautama Buddha the Exalted One:

‘Not even to Sariputta and Moggallana the Great would I hand over the care of the Buddha Sangha; much less to one like thee, Chavassa-khelapakassa! [vile lick-spittle, who lives on charity got by mean ways].

Then Bhikkhu Devadatta thought thus:  ‘The Exalted One, in the very presence of the Rajah and his Court, refuses me, calls me Chavassa-khelapakassa [vile lick-spittle, one who lives on charity got by mean ways], and extols Bhikkhu Sariputta and Bhikkhu Moggallana the Great!’  So, angry and annoyed, he bowed to the Exalted One, saluted Him by the right, and went away.

Now this was the first occasion of Bhikkhu Devadatta’s grudge against the Exalted One.’

[Thereupon Bhikkhu Sariputta was appointed to excomunicate Bhikkhu Devadatta in a formal manner.  Bhikkhu Devadatta afterwards made several attempts to kill the Buddha, but failed and came to a miserable end, smashed under an earthquake, after having attempted the unpardonable sins: of trying to slay his own father, create a schism in the Buddha Sangha and slay an Arhat].    [Vinaya, ii.7, 2].

Ambition

Now at one time Gautama Buddha the Exalted One was dwelling at Rajagaha on the mountain Vulture’s Peak, not long after the schism of Bhikkhu Devadatta.  Thereupon the Exalted One Gautama Buddha addressed the Bhikkhus about Bhikkhu Devadatta, saying:

‘To his own harm, Bhikkhus, did gain, favours, and flattery come to Bhikkhu Devadatta, and led to his downfall.  Even as a plantain brings forth fruit to its own loss, to its own destruction; even as a bamboo or a reed brings forth fruit to its own loss, to its own destruction; just as a mule brings forth young to her own loss; to her own destruction; even so to his own loss, to his own downfall, have gains, favours, and flattery come to Bhikkhu Devadatta.  Thus terible, Bhikkhus, are gains, favours, and flattery; they are a bitter, painful hindrance to the attainment of the sure peace that passeth all.

Wherefore, Bhikkhus, thus must ye train yourselves:

“When gains, favours and flattery befall us, we will reject them, and when they do befall us they shall not lay hold of and be established in our hearts.”

Thus spake the Exalted One Gautama Buddha: when the Happy One had thus spoken, as Teacher He added this further:

 “The plantain, bamboo, and the reed are ruined by the fruit they bear.  By homage is the fool destroyed, as the mule dies in bringing forth.”

 The Favour of Princes

Once Gautama Buddha the Exalted One was staying at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove in the Squirrels’ Feeding-ground.

At that time Prince Ajatasattu was supporting Bhikkhu Devadatta and his group, late and early with five hundred carts, conveying therein food brought in five hundred cooking-pots.  Then a number of the Bhikkhus came before the Exalted One Gautama Buddha, saluted Him, and sat down at one side, and there sitting they told all of these things to Gautama Buddha the Exalted One.

‘Do ye not long for gains, favours, and flattery, Bhikkhus!  So long, Bhikkhus, as Prince Ajatasattu thus supports Bhikkhu Devadatta and his group, late and early, with five hundred carts, conveying therein food brought in five hundred cooking-pots, it is ruin, Bhikkhus, that may be expected of Bhikkhu Devadatta, and not growth in good conditions.

Just as if, Bhikkhus, one were to crumble liver on a mad dog’s nose, the dog would only get the madder – even so, Bhikkhus, so long as Prince Ajatasattu thus supports Devadatta, it is ruin that may be expected of Bhikkhu Devadatta and his group, and not growth in good conditions.  Thus terrible, Bhikkhus, are gains, favours, and flattery.  They are a bitter, painful hindrance to the attainment of the sure peace that passeth all.

Wherefore, Bhikkhus, thus must ye train yourselves:

“When gains, favours and flattery befall us, we will reject them, and when they do befall us, they shall not lay hold of and be established in our hearts.”   [S.N., ii. 242].

 Fools Rush In

 Then the Exalted One Gautama Buddha addressed the Bhikkhus and said:

‘Once upon a time, Bhikkhus, there was a great pool in a forest region and elephants dwelt beside it.  These, plunging into the pool, used to pull up the stalks of lotuses; they washed them clean, and when they were free from mud snatched them up and swallowed them.  This practice was for them a source of health and strength.  Consequent on this they did not come by death or any mortal pain.

Now, Bhikkhus, the young elephant-calves, following the example of the big elephants, likewise plunged into that pool and pulled up the lotus-stalks, but without washing them clean they snatched them up, mud and all, and swallowed them.  This practice was not for them a source of health and strenght.  Consequent on that they came by their death, or at least came to mortal pains.  Even so, Bhikkhus, shall Bhikkhu Devadatta die, the miserable man, by imitating me.

Just as the young calf-elephant – who imitates the mighty elephant that shakes the earth and eats the stalks of lotuses, and all night long keeps watch upon the riverside – doth eat the mud [and die the death], so dies the wretch that copies me.’     [Vinaya, ii. 7,5, and S.N. ii. 268].

The Doom

Bhikkhu Devadatta, Bhikkhus, being overcome by, his mind obsessed by, eight evil conditions, is doomed to Avitchi, the state of woe, for the whole aeon, without hope of remedy.  What are those eight conditions?

Bhikkhu Devadatta is overcome, his mind obsessed by love of gain and loss of gain, by love of fame and loss of fame, by love of honour and loss of honour, by evil desires and by evil friends.  Such, Bhikkhus, are the eight conditions.

Moreover, Bhikkhus, there are three evil conditions, by which overcome, his mind obsessed by which, Bhikkhu Devadatta is so doomed.  What are the three?

Because Bhikkhu Devadatta had evil desires, because Bhikkhu Devadatta had evil friends, and because Bhikkhu Devadatta turned aside [from the Path] and came to a standstill by the attainment of the inferior iddhi [lower magic powers that led Bhikkhu Devadatta astray].          [Vinaya Pitaka, ii.7, 7].

The Jackal – I –

 ‘Once Gautama Buddha, the Exalted One, was staying near Savatthi.  Then the Exalted One, Gautama Buddha, said:

‘Have ye heard the jackal, Bhikkhus, that barks by night and at early dawn?

‘Yes, Lord’, said the Bhikkhus.

‘That, Bhikkhus, is a decrepit jackal suffering from a disease called mange.  Wherever it lists, there it goes; wheresoever it lists, there it stays; wherever it lists, there it squats down; wherever it lists, there it lies, however cold be the wind that blows upon it.

Well might it be, Bhikkhus, for  Bhikkhu Devadatta, vowed to the Sakyas’ son, if he should attain such a state of birth as that.

Therefore, Bhikkhus, thus must ye train yourselves:  ‘Earnest will we dwell.’  Even so, must ye train yourselves.’

 The Jackal – II –

Once the Exalted One, Gautama Buddha, was staying near Savatthi.  Then Gautama Buddha, the Exalted One, said:

‘Have ye heard the jackal, Bhikkhus, that barks by night and at early dawn?’

‘Yes, Lord’, said the Bhikkhus.

‘It may be, Bhikkhus, that the sense of thanks and gratitude felt by that decrepit jackal is not to be found in Bhikkhu Devadatta, vowed to the Sakyas’ son.

Therefore, Bhikkhus, thus must ye train yourselves: “Thankful will we be and full of gratitude; may not the slightest boon to us be given in vain.’  Even so must ye train yourselves.’   [S.N. ii 182-3]

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Foot-notes:

 [*] – These words refer to the guilty Bhikkhu who covered up his faults. The commentator says that the Buddha sent His Bhikkhus to a poor man to ask for firewood.  He gave them the timber off his roof.  Then, though it rained all round, his house was dry.

 [1] – Consumed with the ambition to lead, Bhikkhu Devadatta made a schism in the Buddha Sangha.

 

______________________ 

[Some Sayings of the Buddha, According to the Pali Canon, translated form the Pali by F.L. Woodward, Oxford University Press, Madras, 1925].

 

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BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA
May 28, 2010

THE NET OF BRAHMA

Thus have I heard.  Gautama Buddha, the Blessed One, was once going along the high road between Rajagaha and Nalanda [1] with a great company of Bhikkhus, with five hundred Bhikkhus.  And Suppiya the Brahman beggar [2] too was going along the high road between Rajagaha and Nalanda with his Brahman disciple the young beggar Brahmadatta.  Now just then Suppiya the Brahman was speaking in many ways in dispraise of the Buddha, in dispraise of the Dharma-Vinaya, in dispraise of the Sangha.  But young Brahmadatta, his pupil, gave utterance, in many ways, to praise of the Buddha, to praise of the Buddha Dharma-Vinaya, to praise of the Buddha Sangha.  Thus they two, teacher and pupil, holding opinions in direct contradiction one to the other, were following, step by step, after the Blessed One, Gautama Buddha, and His Bhikkhu Sangha.

Now, Gautama Buddha, the Blessed One put up at the royal rest-house in the Ambalatthika pleasance [3] to pass the night, and with him the Sangha of Bhikkhus.  And so also did Suppiya the mendicant, and with him his young disciple Brahmadatta.  And there, at the rest-house, these two carried on the same discussion as before.

And in the early dawn a number of the Bhikkhus assembled, as they rose up, in the pavilion; and this was the trend of the talk that sprang up among them, as they were seated there.  ‘How wonderful a thing is it, Bhikkhus, and how strange that the Blessed One, Gautama Buddha, He who knows and sees, the Perfect Arhat, the Buddha Supreme, should so clearly have perceived how various are the inclinations of men!  For see how while Suppiya the Brahman speaks in many ways in dispraise of the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha, his own disciple, young Brahmadatta, speaks, in as many ways, in praise of the Buddha, the Buddha Dharma, and the Buddha Sangha.  So do these two, teacher and pupil, follow step by step after the Blessed One and the company of the Bhikkhus, giving utterance to views in direct contradiction one to the other.

Now, Gautama Buddha, the Blessed One, on realizing what was the drift of their talk, went to the pavilion, and took his seat on the mat spread out for him.  And when he had sat down he said: 

‘What is the talk on which you are engaged sitting here, and what is the subject of the conversation between you?’  And they told him all.  And He said: 

‘Bhikkhus, if outsiders should speak against me, or against the Dharma-Vinaya [ ] or against the Buddha Sangha, you should not on that account either bear malice, or suffer heart burning, or feel illwill.  If you, on that account, should be angry and hurt, that would stand in the way of your own self-conquest.  If, when others speak against us, you feel angry at that, and displeased, would you then be able to judge how far that speech of theirs is well said or ill?’

‘That would not be so, Lord.’

‘But when outsiders speak in dispraise of me, or of the Dharma-Vinaya, or of the Sangha, you should unravel what is false and point it out as wrong, saying: “For this or that reason this is not the fact, that is not so, such a thing is not found among us, is not in us.”

‘But also, Bhikkhus, if outsiders should speak in praise of me, in praise of the Dharma-Vinaya, in praise of the Sangha, you should not, on that account, be filled with pleasure or gladness, or be lifted up in heart.  Were you to be so that also would stand in the way of your self-conquest.  When outsiders speak in praise of me, or of the Dharma-Vinaya, or of the Sangha, you should acknowledge what is right to be the fact, saying:  “For this or that reason this is the fact, that is so, such a thing is found among us, is in us.”

‘It is in respect only of trifling things, of matters of little value, of mere morality, that an unconverted man, when praising the Tathagata, would speak.  And what are such trifling, minor details of mere morality that he would praise?’

 Foot-Notes:

 [1] – Nalanda, afterwards the seat of the famous Buddhist University, was about seven miles north of Rajagaha, the capital of Magadha, the modern Raj-gir.

 [2] – The Brahman beggar Suppiya was a follower of the Brahman beggar Sanjaya, whose views are set out and controverted in the next Sutta.

 [3] – Ambalatthika, ‘the Mango Sapling’.  It was, says Buddhaghosa, a well-watered and shady park so called from a mango sapling by the gateway.  It was surrounded with a rampart, and had in it a rest-house adorned with paintings for the king’s amusement.  There was another garden so named at Anuradhapura in Ceylon, to the east of the Brazen Palace.  This was so named, no doubt, after the other which was famous as the scene of the ‘Exhortation to Rahula’, mentioned in Ashoka’s Bhabra Edict.

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KULA SILA

[The Short Paragraphs on Conduct]

THE MORALITIES – PART I

    “Putting away the killing of living things, Gautama the Recluse holds aloof from the destruction of life.  He has laid the cudgel and the sword aside, and ashamed of roughness, and full of mercy, He dwells compassionate and kind to all creatures that have life.”  It is thus that the unconverted man, when speaking in praise of the Tathagata, might speak.

    ‘Or he might say:  “Putting away the taking of what has not been given, Gautama the Recluse lives aloof from grasping what is not his own.  He takes only what is given, and expecting that gifts will come [2] He passes His life in honesty and purity of heart.”

    ‘Or he might say:  “Putting away unchastity, Gautama, the Recluse is chaste.  He holds Himself aloof, far off, from the vulgar practice, from the sexual act. [3]

    ‘Or he might say: “Putting away lying words, Gautama the Recluse holds himself aloof from falsehood.  He speaks truth, from the truth He never swerves; faithful and trustworthy, He breaks not his word to the world.”

   “Or he might say: “Putting away slander, Gautama the Recluse holds himself aloof from calumny.  What He hears here He repeats not elsewhere to raise a quarrel against the people here;  what He hears elsewhere He repeats not here to raise a quarrel against the people there.  Thus does He live as a binder together of those who are divided, an encourager of those who are friends, a peacemaker, a lover of peace, impassioned for peace, a speaker of words that make for peace.”

   “Or he might say: “Putting away rudeness of speech, Gautama the Recluse holds Himself aloof from harsh language.  Whatsoever word is blameless, pleasant to the ear, lovely, reaching to the heart, porin [civilized speech], pleasing to the people, beloved of the people – such are words He speaks.”

   “Or he might say:  “Putting away frivolous talk, [4]  Gautama, the Recluse holds himself aloof from vain conversation.  In season He speaks, in accordance with the facts, words full of meaning, on the Dhamma, on the Vinaya of the Buddha Sangha.  He speaks, and at the right time, words worthy to be laid up in one’s heart, fitly illustrated, clearly explained, to the point.”

   “Or he might say:  “Gautama the Recluse holds Himself aloof from causing injury to seeds or plants. [5]

   He takes but one meal a day, not eating at night, refraining from food after hours (after midday).

   He refrains from being a spectator at shows at fairs, with nautch dances, singing, and music.

   He abstains from wearing, adorning, or ornamenting Himself with garlands, scents, and unguents.

   He abstains from the use of large and lofty beds.

   He abstains from accepting silver or gold.

   He abstains from accepting uncooked grain.

   He abstains from accepting raw meat.

   He abstains from accepting women or girls.

   He abstains from accepting bondmen or bond-women.

   He abstains from accepting sheep or goats.

   He abstains from accepting fowls or swine.

   He abstains from accepting elephants, cattle, horses and mares.

   He abstains from accepting cultivated fields or waste.

   He abstains from the acting as a go-between or messenger.

   He abstains from buying and selling.

   He abstains from cheating with scales or bronzes, [6] or measures.

   He abstains from the crooked ways of bribery, cheating, and fraud.

   He abstains from maiming, murder, putting in bonds, highway robbery, dacoity, and violence.

   ‘Such are the things, Bhikkhus, which an unconverted man, when speaking in praise of the Tathagata, might say.’

Foot-Notes

[*] – THE MORALITIES – These titles occur, in the Manuscripts, at the end of the sections of the tract that now follows.  It forms a part of each of the Suttas in the first division, the first third, of this collection of Suttas.  The division is called therefore the Shila Vagga [Sila Vagga] or Section containing the Silas

[2] – Neumann has ‘waiting for a gift’ which is a possible rendering; but patikankhati has not yet been found elsewhere in the sense of ‘waiting for.’  The usual meaning of the word expresses just such a trifling matter as we have been led, from the context, to expect.

[3] – Gama-dhamma, from the village habit, the practice of country folk, the ‘barbarian’ way.

[4] – Sampha-ppalapa.

[5] – Samarambha.

[6] – Kamsa-kuta.  The context suggests that kamsa [bronze] may here refer to coins, and the word is actually so used in the 11th and 12th Bhikkhuni Nissagiya Rules – the oldest reference in Indian books to coins.  The most ancient coins, which were of private (not state) coinage, were either of bronze or gold.  Buddhaghosa explains the expression here used as meaning the passing of bronze vessels as gold.  Gogerly translates ‘weights’, Childers sub voce has ‘counterfeit metal’, and Newmann has ‘Maass.’

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 ”Or he might say:  ‘Whereas some recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the faithful, continue addicted to the injury of seedlings and growing plants whether propagated from roots or cuttings or joints or buddhings or seeds[1] – Gautama the Recluse holds aloof from such injury to seedlings and growing plants.’

‘Or he might say: ‘Whereas some recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the faithful, continue addicted to the use of things stored up; stores, to wit, of foods, drinks, clothing, equipages, bedding, perfumes, and curry-stuffs[2] – Gautama the Recluse holds aloof from such use of things stored up.’

‘Or he might say: ‘Whereas some recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the faithful, continue addicted to visiting shows[3]; that is to say,

1   – Nautch dances [nakkam].[4]
2   – Singing of songs [gitam].
3   – Instrumental music [vaditam].
4   – Shows at fairs [pekham].[5]
5   – Ballad recitations [akkhanam].[6]
6   – Hand music [panissaram].[7]
7   – The chanting of bards [vetalam].[8]
8   – Tam-tam playing [kumbhathunam].[9]
9   – Fairy scenes [Sobhanagarakam].[10[ 
10  – Acrobatic feats by Kandalas [Kandala-vamsa-dhopanam].[11]
11  – Combats of elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, goats, rams, cocks, and quails.
12  – Bouts at quarter-staff[12], boxing, wrestling.[13]
13/16 – Sham-fights, roll-calls, manoeuvres, reviews[14]

Gautama the Recluse holds aloof from visiting such shows.’

‘Or he might say: ‘Whereas some recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the faithful, continue addicted to games and recreations,[15] that is to say,

01  – Games on boards with eight, or with ten, rows of squares.[16]
02  – The same games played by imagining such boards in the air.[17]
03  – Keeping going over diagrams drawn on the ground so that one steps only where one   ought to go.[18]
04  – Either removing the pieces or men from a heap with one’s own nail, or putting them into a heap, in each case without shaking it.  He who shakes the heap, loses.[19]
05  – Throwing dice.[20]
06  – Hitting a short stick with a long one.[21]
07  – Dipping the hand with the fingers stretched out in lac, or red dye, or flour water, and striking the wet hand on the ground or on a wall, calling out ‘What shall it be?’  and showing the form required: elephants, horses etc.[22]
08  – Games with balls.[23]
09  – Blowing through toy pipes made of leaves.[24]
10  – Ploughing with toy ploughs.[25]
11  – Turning summersaults.[26]
12  – Playing with toy windmills made of palm-leaves.[27]
13  – Playing with toy measures made of palm-leaves.
14/15 – Playing with toy carts or toy bows.[28]
16  – Guessing letters traced in the air, or on a playfellow’s back.[29]
17  – Guessing the play-fellow’s thoughts.
18  – Mimicry of deformities –

Gautama, the Recluse holds aloof from such games and recreations.’

Foot Notes

[1]   – Buddhaghosa gives examples of each of these five classes of the vegetable kingdom without explaining the terms.  But it is only the fourth which is doubtful.  It may mean ‘graftings,’ if the art of grafting was then known in the Ganges valley.
[2]   – Amisa. Buddhaghosa (pag.83) gives a long list of curry-stuffs included under this term.  If he is right then Gogerly’s ‘raw grain’ is too limited a translation, and Neumann’s ‘all sorts of articles to use’ too extensive.  In its secondary meaning the word means ‘something nice, a relish, a dainty.’
[3]   – Visuka-dassanam. This word has only been found elsewhere in the phrase ditthi-visukam, ‘the puppet shows of heresy’ [Majjhima I, pp.8, 486; and Serissaka Vimana LXXXIV, 26).  The Sinhalese renders it wiparita-darsana.
[4]   – Dancing cannot mean here a dancing in which the persons referred to took part.  It must be ballet or nautch dancing.
[5]   – Literally ‘shows’.  This word, only found here, has always been rendered ‘theatrical representations.’  Clough first translated it so in his Sinhalese Dictionary, p.665, and he was followed by Gogerly, Burnouf, myself [in ‘Buddhist Suttas,’ p. 192], and Dr Neumann approve this.  But it is most unlikely that the theatre was already known in the fifth century b.c.  And Buddhaghosa [p.84] explains it, quite simply, as nata-samagga.  Now samaggo is a very interesting old word [at least in its Pali form].  The Sanskrit samagya, according to the Petersburg Dictionary, has only been found in modern dictionaries.  The Pali occurs in other old texts such as Vinaya II, 107; IV, 267 [both times in the very same context as it does here];  ibid. II, 150; IV, 85; Sigalovada Sutta, p.300; and it is undoubtedly the same word as samaga in the first of the fourteen Edicts of Ashoka.  In the Sigalovada there are said to be six dangers at such a samaggo; to wit, dancing, singing, music, recitations, conjuring tricks, and acrobatic shows.  And in the Vinaya passages we learn that at a samaggo not only amusements but also food was provided; that high officials were invited, and had special seats; and that it tok place at the top of a hill.  This last detail of ‘high places’ [that is sacred places] points to a religious motive as underlying the whole procedure.  The roog ag [ayw, ago, whence our ‘act’] belongs to the stock of common Aryan roots,and means ‘carrying on.’  What was the meaning of this ‘carrying on together’?  Who were the people who took part?  Were they confined to one village?  Or have we here a survival from old exogamic communistic dancings together?  Later the word means simply ‘fair’, as at Gataka III, 541:
        ‘Many the bout I have played with quarterstaves at the fair,’ with which Gataka I, 394 may be compared.  And it is no doubt this side of the festival which is here in the mind of the author; but ‘fair’ is nevertheless a very inadequate rendering.  The Sinhalese has ‘rapid movement in dance-figures’ [ranga-mandalu].
[6]   – These ballad recitations in prose and verse combined were the source from which epic poetry was afterwards gradually developed.  Buddhaghosa has no explanation of the word, but gives as examples the Bharata and the Ramayana.  The negative anakhanam occurs in Majjhima I, 503.
[7]   – Buddhaghosa explains this as ‘playing on cymbals’; and adds that it is also called panitalam.  The word is only found here and at Gataka V, 506, and means literally, ‘hand-sounds.’
[8]   – Buddhaghosa says ‘deep music, but some say raising dead bodies to life by spells.’  His own explanation is, I think, meant to be etymological; and to show that he derives the word from vi+tala.  This would bring the word into connection with the Sanskrit vaitalika, ‘royal bard.’  The other explanation connects the word with vetala, ‘a demon,’ supposed to play pranks [as in the stories of the Vetala-panka-vimsati] by reanimating corpses.  Dr Neumann adopts it.  But it does not agree so well with the context;  and it seems scarcely justifiable to see, in this ancient list, a reference to beliefs which can only be traced in literature more than a thousand years later.  Gogerly’s rendering ‘funeral ceremonies,’ which I previously followed, seems to me now quite out of the question.
[9]   – It is clear from Gataka V, 506 that this word means a sort of music.  And at Vinaya IV, 285, kumbhathunika are mentioned in connection with dancers, acrobats, and hired mourners.  Buddhaghosa is here obscure and probably corrupt, and the derivation is quite uncertain.  Gogerly’s guess seems better than Burnouf’s or Neumann’s.  The Sinhalese has ‘striking a drum big enough to hold sixteen gallons.’
[10]  – Buddhaghosa seems to understand by this term [literally ‘of Sobha city’] the adornments or scenery used for a ballet-dance.  [Patibhana-kittam at Vinaya II, 151; IV, 61, 298, 358; Sum. I, 42 is the nude in art].  Weber has pointed out [Indische Studien, II, 38; III, 153] that Sobha is a city of the Gandharvas, fairies much given to music and love-making.  It is quite likely that the name of a frequently used scene for a ballet became a proverbial phrase for all such scenery.  But the Sinhalese has ‘pouring water over the head of dancers, or nude paintings.’
[11]  – Buddhaghosa takes these three words separately, and so do all the MSS. of the text, and the Sinhalese version.  But I now think that the passage at Gataka IV, 390 is really decisive, and that we have here one of the rare cases where we can correct our MSS. against the authority of the old commentator.  But I follow him in the general meaning he assigns to the strange expression ‘Kandala-bamboo-washings.’
[12]  – See Gataka III, 541
[13]  – Nibuddham. The verbal form nibbugghati occurs in the list at Vinaya III, 180 [repeated at II, 10]; and our word at Milinda 232.
[14]  – All these recur in the introductory story to the 50th Pakittiya [Vinaya IV, 107].  On the last compare Buddhaghosa on Mahavagga V, I, 29.
[15]  – Chess played originally on a board of eight times ten squares was afterwards played on one of eight times eight squares.  Our text cannot be taken as evidence of real chess in the fifth century b.c., but it certainly refers to games from which it and draughts must have been developed.  The Sinhalese Sanna says that each of these games was played with dice and pieces such as kings and so on.  The word for pieces is poru [from purisa] – just our ‘men.’
[16]  – Akasam.  How very like blindfold chess!
[17]  – Parihara-patham.  A kind of primitive ‘hop-scotch.’  The Sinhalese says the steps must be made hopping.
[18]  – Santika.  Spellicans, pure and simple.
[19]  – Khalika.  Unfortunately the method of playing is not stated.  Compare Eggeling’s note as in his Satapatha-Brahmana III, 106, 7. In the gambling-scene on the Bharhut Tope [Cunningham, Pl. XLV, No.9] there is a board marked out on the stone of six times five squares [not six by six], and six little cubes with marks on the sides visible lie on the stone outside the board.
[20]  – Ghatikam.  Something like ‘tip-cat’. Sim-kelimaya in Sinhalese.
[21]  – Salaka-hattham.  On flour-water as colouring matter, see Gataka I, 220.
[22]  – Akkham.  The usual meaning is ‘a die’.  But the Sinhalese translator agrees with Buddhaghosa.  Neither gives any details.
[23]  – Pangakiram.  The Sinhalese for this toy is pat-kulal. Morris in J.P.T.S., 1889, p.205, compares the Marathi pungi.
[24]  – Vankakam.  From Sanskrit vrika.  See Journal of the Pali Text Society, 1889, p.206.
[25]  – Mokkhakika.  So the Sinhalese.  Buddhaghosa has an alternative explanation of turning over a trapeze, but gives this also.  See Vinaya I, 275, and J.P.T.S., 1885, p.49.
[26]  – Kingulikam.  See Morris in the J.P.T.S., 1885, p.50, who compares kingulayitva at Anguttara III, 15, 2.
[27]  – All these six, from No.10 inclusive, are mentioned in the Majjhima, vol. i, p.266, as children’s games.
[28]  – Akkharika.  It is important evidence for the date at which writing was known in India that such a game should be known in the fifth century b.c.
[29]  – The following list recurs Vinaya I, 192 = II, 163 = Anguttara I, 181, etc.   

______________________

 [‘Dialogues of the Buddha’, translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys-Davids, Oxford University Press, London, 1899].

 

BUDDHA SABBASAVA SUTTA III
May 25, 2010

 

‘And which, Bhikkhus, are the Asavas to be abandoned by Pari-vaggana [avoidance]?

Herein, Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu wisely reflecting, avoids a rogue elephant, he avoids a furious horse, he avoids a wild bull, he avoids a mad dog, a snake, a stump in the path, a thorny bramble, a pit, a precipice, a dirty tank or pool.  When tempted to sit in a place where one should not sit, or to walk where one should not walk, or to cultivate the acquaintance of bad companions, the Bhikkhu is skilled to shun the evil; and wisely reflecting he avoids that, as a place whereon one should not sit, that, as a place wherein one should not walk, those men, as companions that are bad.

For whereas, Bhikkhus, to the man who avoideth not, Asavas may arise, full of vexation and distress; to the Bhikkhu who avoids, the Asavas full of vexation and distress, are not.

These, Bhikkhus, are called the Asavas to be abandoned by Pari-vaggana.

And which, Bhikkhus, are the Asavas to be abandoned by Vinodana [removal]?

Herein, Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, wisely reflecting, when there has sprung up within him a lustful thought, that he endureth not, he puts it away, he removes it, he destroys it, he makes it not to be; when there has sprung up within him an angry thought, a malicious thought, some sinful, wrong disposition, that he endureth not, he puts it away, he removes it, he destroys it, he makes it not to be.

For whereas, Bhikkhus, to the man who removeth not, Asavas may arise, full of vexation and distress; to the Bhikkhu who removes, the Asavas, full of vexation and distress, are not.

These, Bhikkhus, are called the Asavas to be abandoned by Vinodana.

And which, Bhikkhus, are the Asavas to be abandoned by Bhavana? [*]

Herein, Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, wisely reflecting, bhavana that part of the higher wisdom called Mindfulness, dependent on seclusion, dependent on passionlessness, dependent on the utter ecstasy of contemplation, resulting in the passing off of thoughtlessness.

For whereas, Bhikkhus, to the man who bhavana not, Asavas may arise, full of vexation and distress; to the Bhikkhu who bhavana, the Asavas, full of vexation and distress, are not.

These, Bhikkhus, are called the Asavas to be abandoned by Bhavana.

And then when a Bhikkhu has by insight put away the Asavas to be abandoned by insight, and by subjugation has put away the Asavas to be abandoned by subjugation, and by right use has put away the Asavas to be abandoned by right use, and by endurance has put away the Asavas to be abandoned by endurance, and by avoidance has put away the Asavas to be abandoned by avoidance, and by removal has put away the Asavas to be abandoned by removal, and by Bhavana has put away the Asavas to be abandoned by Bhavana, that Bhikhu, O Bhikkhus, remains shut in by the subjugation of the Asavas, that Bhikkhu has destroyed the craving fhirst, by thorough penetration of mind he has rolled away every fetter, and he has made an end of pain.

Thus spake the Blessed One, Gautama Buddha; and those Bhikkhus, glad at heart, exalted the word of Gautama Buddha, the Blessed One.’

__________________________________

[*] – Bhavana:- Rhys-Davids translates the Pali word ‘bhavana’ as ‘cultivation’.

 

BUDDHA SABBASAVA SUTTA II
May 25, 2010

 

‘And which are the Asavas to be abandoned by Samvara [subjugation]?

Herein, Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, wisely reflecting, remains shut in by the subjugation of the organ of Sight.  For whereas to the Bhikkhu not shut in by the subjugation of the organ of sight Asavas may rise, full of vexation and distresss, to the Bhikkhu shut in by the subjugation of the organ of sight the Asavas, full of vexation and distress, are not.

Wisely reflecting, the Bhikkhu remains shut in by the subjugation of the organ of Hearing.  For whereas to the  Bhikkhu not shut in by the subjugation of the organ of hearing Asavas may arise, full of vexation and distress, to the Bhikkhu shut in by the subjugation of the organ of hearing the Asavas, full of vexation and distress, are not.

Wisely reflecting, the Bhikkhu remains shut in by the subjugation of the organ of Smell.  For whereas to the Bhikkhu not shut in by the subjugation of the organ of smell Asavas may arise, full of vexation and distresss, to the Bhikkhu shut in by the subjugation of the organ of smell the Asavas, full of vexation and distress, are not.

Wisely reflecting, the Bhikkhu remains shut in by the subjugation of the organ of Taste.  For whereas to the Bhikkhu not shut in by the subjugation of the organ of taste Asavas may arise, full of vexation and distress, to the Bhikkhu shut in by the subjugation of the organ of taste the Asavas, full of vexation and distress, are not.

Wisely reflecting, the Bhikkhu remains shut in by the subjugation of the organ of Touch.  For whereas to the Bhikkhu not shut in by the subjugation of the organ of touch Asavas may arise, full of vexation and distress, to the Bhikkhu shut in by the subjugation of the organ of touch the Asavas, full of vexation and distress, are not.

Wisely reflecting, the Bhikkhu remains shut in by the subjugation of the organ of Mind. For whereas to the Bhikkhu not shut in by the subjugation of the organ of mind Asavas may arise, full of vexation and distress, to the Bhikkhu shut in by the subjugation of the organ of mind the Asavas, full of vexation and distress, are not.

These, Bhikkhus, are called the Asavas to be abandoned by Samvara.

And which are the Asavas to be abandoned by Patisevana [right use]?

Herein, Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, wisely reflecting, makes use of his robes for the purpose only of warding off the cold, of warding off the heat, of warding off the contact of gad-flies and mosquitoes, of wind and sun, and snakes; and of covering his nakedness.

Wisely reflecting, the Bhikkhu makes use of alms, not for sport or sensual enjoyment, not for adorning or beautifying himself, but solely to sustain the body in life, to prevent its being injured, to aid himself in the practice of a holy life – thinking the while, “Thus shall I overcome the old pain, and shall incur no new; and everywhere shall I be at ease, and free from blame.”

Wisely reflecting, the Bhikkhu makes use of an abode; only to ward off cold, to ward off heat, to ward off the contact of gad-flies and mosquitoes, of wind and sun, and snakes; only to avoid the dangers of the climate, and to secure the delight of privacy.

Wisely reflecting, the  Bhikkhu makes use of medicine and other necessaries for the sick; only to ward off the pain that causes injury, and to preserve his health.

For whereas, Bhikkhus, to the Bhikkhu not making such right use, Asavas may arise, full of vexation and distress; to the Bhikkhu making such right use, the Asavas, full of vexation and distress, are not.

These, Bhikkhus, are called the Asavas to be abandoned by Patisevana.’

______________________

[To be continued].

 

BUDDHA SABBASAVA SUTTA
May 23, 2010

ALL THE ASAVAS*

‘Thus have I heard.  The Blessed One, Gautama Buddha, was once staying at Savatthi, at the Jetavana, in Anatha Pindika’s park.

There Gautama Buddha, the Blessed One, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said, ‘Bhikkhus.’

‘Yea, Lord!’ said those Bhikkhus, in assent, to the Blessed One, Gautama Buddha.

‘I will teach you, O Bhikkhus, the lesson of the subjugation of all the Asavas.  Listen well, and attend, and I will speak!’

‘Even so, Lord!’  said the Bhikkhus, in assent, to Gautama Buddha, the Blessed One.

Then the Blessed One, spake:

‘I say that there is destruction of the Asavas, Bhikkhus, to him who knows, to him who sees; not to him who knows not, to him who sees not.  And what do I say, Bhikkhus, is the destruction of the Asavas to him who knows, to him who sees?  It is (a matter of) wise consideration, and of foolish consideration.

In him, Bhikkhus, who considers unwisely, Asavas which have not arisen spring up, and Asavas which have arisen are increased.  In him, Bhikkhus, who considers wisely, Asavas which have not arisen spring not up, and Asavas which have arisen do not increase.

There are Asavas which should be abandoned, Bhikkhus, by insight, there are Asavas which should be abandoned by subjugation, there are Asavas which should be abandoned by right use, there are Asavas which should be abandoned by endurance, there are Asavas which should be abandoned by avoidance, there are Asavas which should be abandoned by removal, there are Asavas which should be abandoned by cultivation.

And which, Bhikkhus, are the Asavas which should be abandoned by insight? [1]

In the first place, Bhikkhus, the ignorant, unconverted man, who perceives not the Aryas, who comprehends not, nor is trained according to the doctrine of the Aryas; who perceives not good men, who comprehends not, nor is trained according to the doctrine of good men; he neither understands what things ought to be considered, nor what things ought not to be considered; the things that ought not to be considered, those he considers; and the things that ought to be considered, those he does not consider.

And which, Bhikkhus, are those things which he should not consider, which he nevertheless considers?

There are things which, when a man considers them, the Asava of Lust springs up within him, which had not sprung up before; and the Asava of Lust, which had sprung up, grows great;  the Asava of  Life [life in the sense of individuality, of self] springs up within him, which had not sprung up before; and the Asava of Life, which had sprung up, grows great; the Asava of Ignorance springs up within him, which had not sprung up before; and the Asava of Ignorance, which had sprung up, grows great.

These are the things which ought not to be considered, things which he considers.

And which, Bhikkhus, are those things which should be considered, which he nevertheless does not consider?

There are things, Bhikkhus, which, when a man considers them, the Asava of Lust, if it had not sprung up before, springs not up within him; and the Asava of Lust, which had sprung up, is put away; the Asava of Life, if it had not sprung up before, springs not up within him; and the Asava of Life, which had sprung up, is put away; the Asava of Ignorance, if it had not sprung up before, springs not up within him; and the Asava of Ignorance, which had sprung up, is put away.

These are the things which ought to be considered, things which he does not consider.

It is by his consideration of those things, which ought not to be considered; and by his non-consideration of those things, which ought to be considered, that Asavas arise within him which had not sprung up; and Asavas which had sprung up, grow great.’

Unwisely doth he consider thus:

“Have I existed during the ages that are past, or have I not?  What was I during the ages that are past?  How was I during the ages that are past ?  Having been what, what did I become in the ages that are past?  Shall I exist during the ages of the future, or shall I not?  What shall I be during the ages of the future?  How shall I be during the ages of the future?  Having been what, what shall I become during the ages of the future?”

Or he debates within himself as to the present:

‘Do I after all exist, or am I not?  How am I?  This is a being; whence now did it come, and whither will it go?”

In him, thus unwisely considering, there springs up one or other of the six (absurd) notions. [2]

As something true and real he gets the notion:  “I have a self!”

As something true and real he gets the notion:  “I have not a self!”

As something true and real he gets the notion:  “By my self, I am conscious of my self!”

As something true and real he gets the notion: “By myself I am conscious of my non-self!”

Or, again, he gets the notion:  “This soul of mine can be perceived, it has experienced the result of good and evil actions committed here and there;  now this soul of mine is permanent, lasting, eternal, has the inherent quality of never changing, and will continue for ever and ever!”

This, Bhikkhus, is called the walking in delusion, the jungle of delusion [3],  the wilderness of delusion, the puppet show of delusion, the writhing of delusion, the fetter of delusion.

Bound, Bhikkhus, with this fetter of delusion, the ignorant unconverted man becomes not freed from birth, decay, and death, from sorrows, lamentations, pains, and griefs, and from the practice of rites, ceremonies, and the worship of gods, he does not become free, I say, from pain.

But the wise man, Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu walking in the Ariyas Path, who perceives the Ariyas ones; who comprehends, and is trained according to, the Ariyas Dhamma; who perceives good men, who comprehends, and is trained according to, the doctrine of good men; he understands both what things ought to be considered, and what things ought not to be considered – and thus understanding, the things that ought to be considered those he considers; and the things that ought not to be considered, those he does not consider.

And which, Bhikkhus, are those things which ought not to be considered, and which he does not consider?

There are things which, when a man considers them, the Asava of Lust springs up withing him, which had not sprung up before; and the Asava of Lust, which had sprung up, grows great; the Asava of Life springs up within him, which had not sprung up before; and the Asava of Life, which had sprung up, grows great;  the Asava of Ignorance springs up within him, which had not sprung up before; and the Asava of Ignorance, which had sprung up, grows great.

These are the things which ought not to be considered, things which he considers.

And which, Bhikkhus, are those things which should be considered, and which he does consider?

There are things, Bhikkhus, which, when a man considers them, the Asava of Lust, if it had not sprung up before, springs not up within him; and the Asava of Lust, which had sprung up, is put away;  the Asava of Life, if it had not sprung up before, springs not up within him; and the Asava of Life, which had sprung up, is put away; the Asava of Ignorance, if it had not sprung up before, springs not up within him; and the Asava of Ignorance, which had sprung up, is put away.

These are the things which ought to be considered, things which he does not consider.

It is by his not considering those things which ought to be considered, and by his considering those things which ought not to be considered, that Asavas which had not sprung up within him spring not up, and Asavas which had sprung up are put away.

He considers: “This is suffering.”  He considers, “This is the origin of suffering.”  He considers, “This is the cessation of suffering.”  He considers, “This is the way which leads to the cessation of suffering.”  And from him, thus considering, the three fetters fall away – the delusion of self, hesitation, and the dependence on rites and ceremonies.

These are the Asavas, Bhikkhus, which are to be abandoned by insight.”

______________________________

Foot Notes:

[ * ] – ‘The word Asava seems in this Sutta to be used in a general sense, not confined only to the Asavas of sensuality, individuality, delusion, and ignorance, but including the more various defilements or imperfections of mind, out of which those especial defilements will proceed.  Incidentally reference is made to the well-known Buddhist doctrine, that the right thing is to seek after the Nirvana of a perfect life in Arhatship, and not to trouble and confuse oneself by the discussion of speculative questions as to past or future existence, or even as to the presence within the body of a soul.  Buddhism is not only independent of the theory of soul, but regards the consideration of that theory as worse than profitless, as the source of manifold delusions and superstitions.  Practically this comes, however, to much the same thing as the denial of the existence of the soul.  And we have seen above that anattam, the absence of a soul or self as abiding principle, is one of the three parts of Buddhist wisdom [vigga] and of Buddhist perception [sanna].   I may add that the importance of the Asavas appears from the fact that elsewhere the knowledge of them, of their origin, of their cessation, and of the way that leads to their cessation is placed on the road to Arhatship immediately after, and parallel to, the knowledge of Suffering, of its origin, of its cessation, and of the way that leads to its cessation – the knowledge, that is, of the four Ariyas Truths. The Asavas there meant are sensuality, individuality (or life), and ignorance; and the expressions ‘to him who knows, to him who sees’in Pali is ganato passato.   I am unable to suggest any good translation of the term itself – simple though it is.  It means literally ‘a running or flowing’, or (thence), ‘a leak;’ but as that figure is not used in English in a higher sense, it is necessary to choose some other figure; and it is not easy to find one that is appropriate.  I leave the word Asava untranslated.’  

[1] – Dassana.

[2] – Khannam ditthinam.

[3] – Ditthi-gahanam, with allusion, doubtless, if the reading is correct, to gahanam.

__________________

[To be continued].

 

BUDDHA AKANKHEYYA SUTTA
May 14, 2010

IF THE BHIKKHU SHOULD DESIRE

‘Thus have I heard. Gautama Buddha, The Blessed One was once staying at Savatthi in Anatha Pindika’s park.

There the Blessed One, Gautama Buddha, addressed the Bhikkhus and said:  ‘Bhikkhus’.  ‘Yes, Lord!’, said the Bhikkhus, in assent, to Gautama Buddha, the Blessed One.

Then spake the Blessed One, Gautama Buddha:

‘Continue, Bhikkhus, in the practice of Sila, Right Conduct, (1) adhering to the Rules of the Sangha  (2) ;  continue enclosed by the restraint of the Vinaya, devoted to uprighteness in life; (3)  train yourselves according to the Precepts, (4)  taking them upon you in the sense of the danger in the least offence.

‘If a Bhikkhu should desire, Bhikkhus, to become beloved, popular, respected among his fellow-disciples, let him then fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, (5) let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, (6) let him look through things, (7) let him be much alone!’

‘If a Bhikkhu should desire, Bhikkhus, to receive the requisites:  clothing, food, lodging, and medicine, and other necessaries for the sick, let him then fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone!’

‘If a Bhikkhu should desire, Bhikkhus, that to those people among whom he receives the requisites: clothing, food, lodging, and medicine, and other necessaries for the sick,  that charity of theirs should redound to great fruit and great advantage, let him fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone!’

”If a Bhikkhu should desire, Bhikkhus, that those relatives of his, of one blood with him, dead and gone, who think of him with believing heart should find therein great fruit and great advantage, (8) let him then fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone!’

‘If a Bhikkhu should desire, Bhikkhus, that he should be victorious over discontent and lust, (9)  that discontent should never overpower him, that he should master and subdue any discontent that had sprung up within him, let him then fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone!’

‘If a Bhikkhu should desire, Bhikkhus, that he should be victorious over (spiritual) danger and dismay, that neither danger nor dismay should ever overcome him, that he should master and subdue every danger and dismay, let him then fulfill all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone!’

‘If a Bhikkhu should desire, Bhikkhus, to realise the hopes of those spiritual men who live in the bliss which comes, even in this present world, from the four Gkanas, should he desire not to fall into the pains and difficulties (which they avoid), let him then fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone!’ (10)

‘If a Bhikkhu should desire, Bhikkhus, to reach with his body and remain in those stages of deliverance which are incorporeal, and pass beyond phenomena, (11) let him then fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone!’

‘If a Bhikkhu should desire, Bhikkhus, by the complete destruction of the three Bonds to become converted, to be no longer liable to be reborn in a state of suffering, and to be assured of final salvation, let him then fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone!’

‘If a Bhikkhu should desire, Bhikkhus, by the complete destruction of the three Bonds, and by the reduction to a minimum of lust, hatred, and delusion, to become a Sakadagamin, and (thus) on his first return to this world to make an end of sorrow, let him then fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone!’

‘If a Bhikkhu should desire, Bhikkhus, by the complete destruction of the five Bonds which bind people to this earth, to become an inheritor of the highest heavens, (12) there to pass entirely away, thence never to return, let him then fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone!’

 ‘If a Bhikkhu should desire, Bhikkhus, to exercise one by one each of the different Iddhis, being one to become multiform, being multiform to become one; to become visible, or to become invisible; to go without being stopped to the further side of a wall, or a fence, or a mountain, as if through air; to penetrate up and down through solid ground, as if through water; to walk on the water without dividing it, as if on solid ground; to travel cross-legged through the sky, like the birds on wing; to touch and feel with the hand even the sun and the moon, mighty and powerful though they be; and to reach in the body even up to the heaven of Brahma; let him then fulfil all righteousness,  let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone!’

‘If a Bhikkhu should desire, Bhikkhus, to hear with clear and heavenly ear, surpassing that of men, sounds both human and celestial, whether far or near, let him then fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone!’

‘If a Bhikkhu should desire, Bhikkhus, to comprehend by his own heart the hearts of other beings and of other men; to discern the passionate mind to be passionate, and the calm mind calm; the angry mind to be angry, and the peaceable peaceable; the deluded mind to be deluded, and the wise mind wise; the concentrated thoughts to be concentrated, and the scattered to be scattered; the lofty mind to be lofty, and the narrow mind narrow; the sublime thoughts to be sublime, and the mean to be mean; the steadfast mind to be steadfast, and the wavering to be wavering;  the free mind to be free, and the enslaved mind to be enslaved; let him then fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone!’

‘If a Bhikkhu should desire, Bhikkhus, to be able to call to mind his various temporary states in days gone by; such as one birth, two births, three, four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, a hundred or a thousand, or a hundred thousand births; (13) his births in many an aeon of destruction, in many an aeon of renovation, (14) in many an aeon of both destruction and renovation;  (so as to be able to say),  ‘In that place such was my name, such my family, such my caste, (15) such my subsistence, such my experience of comfort or of pain, and such the limit of my life; and when I passed from thence, I took form again in that other place where my name was so and so,  such my family, such my caste, such my subsistence, such my experience of comfort or of joy, and such my term of life;  and when I fell from thence, I took form in such and such a place;  (16) – should he desire thus to call to mind his temporary states in days gone by in all their modes and all their details let him then fulfill all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone!’

‘If a Bhikkhu should desire, Bhikkhus, (17) to see with pure and heavenly vision, surpassing that of men, being as they pass from one state of existence and take form in others; beings base or noble, good-looking or ill-favoured, happy or miserable, according to the karma they inherit – (if the Bhikkhu should desire to be able to say),  ‘These beings, reverend sirs, by their bad conduct in action, by their bad conduct in word, by their bad conduct in thought, by their speaking evil of the Noble Ones, (18) by their adhesion to false doctrine, or by their acquiring the karma of false doctrine, (19) have been reborn, on the dissolution of the body after death, in some unhappy state of suffering or woe.’ ‘These beings, reverend sirs, by their good conduct in action, by their good conduct in word, by their good conduct in thought, by their not speaking evil of the Noble Ones, by their adhesion to right doctrine, by their acquiring the karma of right doctrine, have been reborn, on the dissolution of the body after death, into some happy state in heaven;’  – should a Bhikkhu desire thus to see with pure and heavenly vision, surpassing that of men, beings as they thus pass from one state of existence and take form in others; beings base or noble, good-looking or ill-favoured, happy or miserable, according to the karma they inherit; let him then fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone!’

‘If a Bhikkhu should desire, Bhikkhus, by the destruction of the great evils, Asavas, (20) by himself, and even in this very world, to know and realise and attain to Arhatship, to emancipation of heart, and emancipation of mind, le him then fulfill all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let  not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone!’

‘Continue therefore, Bhikkhus, in the practice of Right Conduct, adhering to the Vinaya; continue enclosed by the restraint of the Vinaya, devoted to uprighteness in life; train yourselves according to the Precepts, taking them upon you in the sense of the danger in the least offence.  For to this end alone has all, that has been said, been said!’

Thus spake the Blessed One.  And those Bhikkhus, delighted in heart, exalted the word of the Blessed One, Gautama Buddha.

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 Foot Notes:-

 (1) – Sila

(2) – Patimokkha.

(3) – Akaragokara.

(4) – Sikkhapadesu. The Buddhist Decalogue.

(5) – Agghattam keto samatham.

(6) – Ghana.

(7) – Vipassana; it is always used, in contrast to samatha (note 5), of insight into objective phenomena.  These three qualities are constantly referred to as parts of Arhatship.  David da Silva makes Vipassana identical with the sevenfold perception (sanna, mentioned as conditions of the welfare of a community in the Book of the Great Decesase, Chapter I, # 10).

(8) – Even after death those who remember the Buddha, the Dharma, or the Sangha with believing heart can reap spiritual advantage. 

(9) – Aratiratisaho.  Arati is the disinclination to fulfil the duties of a Samana, discontent with the restrictions of the Sangha.

(10) – The bliss here referred to, and described in detail below, Maha-sudassana Sutta, Chapter III, is the ‘ecstasy of contemplation’ referred to in the refrain.

(11) – These are the eight Vimokkha, a list of which occurs in the Maha-para-nibbana.

(12) – Opapatika.  This is another of those words which, from their connoting Buddhist ideas unknown in Europe, are really untranslatable.  It means a being who springs into existence without the intervention of parents, and therefore, as it were, uncaused, and seeming to appear by chance.  All the higher Devas are Opapatika, there being no sex or birth in the highest heavens; and it is with especial allusion to this that the word is here used.  There is of course from the Buddhist point of view (which admits of nothing without a cause) a very sufficient cause for the sudden appearance of an Opapatika in heaven, viz, the karma of a being who has past away somewhere else; but the Buddhist  theory necessitated the choice of an expression which would give no countenance to the (heretical) idea of a soul flying away after the death of its body from one world to another.  In the expression ‘which bind people to this world,’ by world is meant the Rupa-loka, or world of form, which include all those parts of the universe whose inhabitants have an outward form and are subject to lusts.

(13) – The Lalita Vistara characteristically carries this enumeration further up into innumerable kotis and niyutas of births.

(14) – This is based on the Buddhist theory of the periodical destruction and renovation of the universe, each of which takes countless years to be accomplished.

(15) – Vanna, colour.

(16) – The text of this clause recurs nearly word for word in the Brahma-gala Sutta; and in the Lalita Vistara; and exactly in the Samanna Phala Sutta.

(17) – This paragraph recurs in the Samanna Phala Sutta, and in nearly the same words in the Lalita Vistara.

(18) – This is a collective term, meaning Buddhas, Pakkeka Buddhas, Arhats, Anagamins, Sakadagamins, and Sotapannas; that is, those who are walking in the Noble Eightfold Path.

(19) – The Pali is mikkha – (and below samma) ditthi-kamma-samadana; the Lalita Vistara, whose other expressions are identical with the Pali, has, very strangely, mithya- (and below samyag-) ditthin-karma-dharma-samadana.

(20) – Sensuality, individuality, delusion and ignorance.

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(Translated from the Pali by T.W. Rhys-Davids, Oxford University Press, London, 1881).

 

BUDDHA DHAMMA-KAKKA-PPAVATTANA SUTTA – II –
May 13, 2010

 

And when the royal chariot wheel of the truth had thus been set rolling onwards by the Blessed One, Gautama Buddha, the Devas of the Earth gave forth a shout, saying:

‘In Benares, at the hermitage of the Migadaya,  the supreme wheel of the Empire of Truth has been set rolling by Gautama Buddha, the Blessed One – that wheel which not by any Samana or Brahman, not by any Deva, not by any Brahma or Mara, not by any one in the universe can ever be turned back!’

And when they heard the shout of the Devas of the Earth, the attendant Devas of the four great kings (the guardian Devas of the four quarters of the planet Earth) gave forth a shout, saying:

‘In Benares, at the hermitage of the Migadaya, the supreme wheel of the Empire of Truth has been set rolling by Gautama Buddha, the Blessed One – that wheel which not by any Samana or Brahman, not by any Deva, not by any Brahma or Mara, not by any one in the universe, can ever be turned back!”

 And thus as the Devas in each of the heavens  heard the shout of the inhabitants of the heaven beneath, they took up the cry until the Devas in the highest heaven of heavens  gave forth the shout, saying:

 ”In Benares, at the hermitage of the Migadaya, the supreme wheel of the empire of Truth has set rolling by Gautama Buddha, the Blessed One – that wheel which not by any Samana or Brahman, not by any god, not by any Brahma or Mara, not by any one in the universe can ever be turned back!

 And thus, in an instant, a second, a moment, the sound went up even to the world of Brahma;  and this great ten-thousand-world-system quaked and trembled and was shaken violently, and an immeasurable bright light appeared in the universe, beyond even the power of the Devas.

 Then did the Blessed One give utterance to this exclamation of joy:  ‘Kondanna hath realised it.  Kondanna hath realised it.’  And so the Venerable Kondanna acquired the name of Annata-Kondanna, the Kondanna who realised.(*)

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 Foot-note:

(*) –  The Maha Vagga completes the narrative as follows:

‘And the Venerable Annata-Kondonna having seen the truth, having arrived at the truth, having known the truth, having penetrated the truth, having past beyond doubt, having laid aside uncertainty, having attained to confidence, and being dependent on no one beside himself for knowledge of the religion of the Teacher, spake thus to the Blessed One, Gautam Buddha: 

 “May I become, O my Lord, a novice under the Blessed One, may I receive full ordination!”

 ‘Welcome, O Brother!’  said the Blessed One, Gautama Buddha, ‘the truth has been well laid down.  Practice holiness to the complete suppresion of suffering!’.

 And that was the ordination of the Venerable One.

 The other four, Vappa, Bhaddiya, Mahanama and Assagi, were converted on the following days, according to the ‘Buddhist Birth Stories’.

 It is there also said that ‘myriades of the Devas had been converted simultaneously with Kondanya.’

 

Buddha Dhamma Kakka Ppavattana Sutta – I –
May 9, 2010

THE FOUNDATION OF THE  KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS

Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato, Sammasambuddhassa!

(Reverence to Gautama Buddha, the Blessed One, the Holy One, the Fully-Enlightened One)

Evam   me  sutam.  Ekam  samayam  Bhagava  Baranasiyam  viharati  Isipatane  Migadaye.  Me  evam  sutam.  Ekam  samayam  Bhagava  Baranasiyam  Isipatane  Migadaye  viharati.

Thus have I heard.  Gautama Buddha was once staying at Benares, at the hermitage called Migadaya.  And there Gautama Buddha addressed the company of the five Bhikkhus, and said:

“There are these two extremes, O Bhikkhus, which the Bhikkhu who has given up the world ought not to follow – the habitual practice, on the one hand, of those things whose attraction depends upon the passions, and especially of sensuality – a low and wordly way (of seeking satisfaction) unworthy, unprofitable, and fit only for the worldly-minded; and the habitual practice, on the other hand, of (wrong) asceticism (self-mortification), which is painful, unworthy, and unprofitable.

There is a middle path, O Bhikkhus, avoiding these two extremes, discovered by the Tathagata, a path which opens the eyes, and bestows understanding, which leads to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom, to full enlightenment, to Nirvana!

What is that middle path, O Bhikkhus, avoiding these two extremes,  discovered by the Tathagata;  that path which opens the eyes, and bestows understanding, which leads to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom, to full enlightenment, to Nirvana?  Verily!  It is this noble eightfold path; that is to say:

    Right Belief;  Right Intention;  Right Speech;  Right Action;  Right Living;  Right Effort;  Right Mindfulness;  Right Meditation.

 This, O Bhikkhus, is that middle path, avoiding these two extremes, discovered by the Tathagata;  that path which opens the eyes, and bestows understanding, which leads to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom, to full enlightenment, to Nirvana!

Now this, O Bhikkhus, is the Ariyan truth of suffering.

Birth is attended with pain, decay is painful, disease is painful,  death is painful.  Union with the unpleasant is painful,  painful is separation from the pleasant;  and any craving that is unsatisfied, that too is painful.  In brief, the five aggregates which spring from attachment,  the conditions of individuality and their cause are painful.*

This then, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth of suffering.

Now this, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the cause of suffering.

Verily, it is that thirst (or  craving),  causing the renewal of existence, accompanied by sensual delight, seeking satisfaction now here, now there – that is to say, the craving for the gratification of the passions, or the craving for a future life, or the craving for success in this present life. **

This then, O Bhikkhus, is the Ariyan truth of the cause of suffering.

Now this, O Bhikkhus,  is the Ariyan truth of the end of suffering.

Verily, it is the end, in which no passion remains, of this very thirst;  the laying aside of, the getting rid of, the being free from, the harbouring no longer of this thirst.

This then, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the end of suffering.

Now this, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the path (Patipada),  which leads to the end of suffering.  Verily!  it is this Ariyan eighfold path, (Ariyo atangiko Maggo),  that is to say:   

   Right Belief;  Right Intention;  Right Speech;  Right Action;  Right Living;  Right Effort;  Right Mindfulness;  Right Meditation.

This then, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the end of suffering.

That this was the Ariyan truth of the end of suffering, was not, O Bhikkhus, among the doctrines handed down, but there arose within me the eye (to perceive it), there arose the knowledge (of its nature), there arose the understanding (of its cause), there arose the wisdom (to guide in the path of tranquillity), there arose the light (to dispel darkness from it).

And again, O Bhikkhus, that I should comprehend that this was the Ariyan truth of  suffering, though it was not among the doctrines handed down, there arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there arose the wisdom, there arose the light.

And again, O Bhikkhus, that I had comprehended that this was the Ariyan truth of suffering,  it was not among the doctrines handed down, there arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there arose the wisdom, there arose the light.

That this was the Ariyan truth of the cause of suffering, though it was not among the doctrines handed down, there arose within me the eye; but there arose within me the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there arose the wisdom, there arose the light.

And again, O Bhikkhus, that I should put away the cause of suffering, though the noble truth concerning it was not among the doctrines handed down, there arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there arose the wisdom, there arose the light.

And again, O Bhikkhus, that I had fully put away the cause of suffering, though the noble truth concerning it was not among the doctrines handed down, there arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there arose the light.

That this, O Bhikkhus, was the noble truth of the end of suffering, though it was not among the doctrines handed down;  but there arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there arose the wisdom, there arose the light.

And again, O Bhikkhus, that I should fully realise the end of suffering though the noble truth concerning it was not among the doctrines handed down, there arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there arose the wisdom, there arose the light.

And again, O Bhikkhus, that I had fully realised the end of suffering, though the noble truth concerning it was not among the doctrines handed down, there arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there arose the wisdom, there arose the light.

That this was the noble truth of the path to the end of suffering, was not, O Bhikkhus, among the doctrines handed down;  but there arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there arose the wisdom, there arose the light.

And again, O Bhikkhus, that I should become versed in the way which leads to the end of suffering, though the noble truth concerning it was not among the doctrines handed down, there arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there arose the wisdom, there arose the light.

And again, O Bhikkhus, that I had become versed in the way which leads to the end of suffering, though the noble truth concerning it was not among the doctrines handed down, there arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there arose the wisdom, there arose the light.

So long, O Bhikkhus, as my knowledge and insight were not quite clear, regarding each of these four Ariyan truths in this triple order, in this twelve-fold manner , so long was I uncertain whether I had attained to the full insight of that wisdom which is unsurpassed in the heavens or on earth, among the whole race of Samanas,  Arhats,  Devas or Mankind.

But as soon, O Bhikkhus, as my knowledge and insight were quite clear regarding each of these four Ariyan truths, in this triple order, in this twelvefold manner – then did I become certain that I had attained to the full insight of that wisdom which is unsurpassed in the heavens or on earth, among the whole race of Samanas, Arhats, Devas or Mankind.

And now this knowledge and this insight has arisen within me.  Immovable is the emancipation of my heart.  This is my last existence.  There will now be no rebirth for me!”

Thus spake Gautama Buddha, the Blessed One.  The company of the five Bhikkhus, glad at heart, exalted the words of Gautama Buddha, the Blessed One.  And when the discourse had been uttered, there arose within the Venerable Kondanna the eye of truth, spotless, and without a stain (and he saw that) whatsoever has an origin, in that is also inherent the necessity of coming to an end.***

_________________

Foot-notes:- 

(*) – Pank’upadanakkhanda – on the Khandha, or the material and mental aggregates which go to make up an individual.  Upadana, or ‘graspig’ is their source, and the uprooting of this upadana from the mind is Arhatship.

(**) – The lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of life correspond very exactly to the first and third of these three tanhas.  The lust of the flesh, the lust of life, and the pride of life, or ‘the lust of the flesh, the lust of life, and the love of this present world’, would be not inadequate renderings of all three.  The last two are in Pali ‘bava-tanha and vibhava-tanha’.  ‘The former applies to the sassata-ditthi, and means a desire for an eternity of existence;  the latter applies to the ukkheda-ditthi, and means a desire for annihilation in the very first (the present) form of existence.  Sassata-ditthi may be called the ‘ever-lasting life heresy’, and ukkheda-ditthi the ‘let-us eat-and-drink-for-tomorrow-we-die-heresy’.  These two heresies, thus implicitly condemned, have very close analogies to theism and materialism.  Bhawa-tanha signifies the pertinacious love of existence induced by the supposition that transmigratory existence is not only eternal, but felicitous and desirable.  Wibhawa-tanha is the love of the present life, under the notion that existence will cease therewith, and that there is to be no future state.  Vibhava in Sanskrit means: 1)- development;  2)- might, majesty, prosperity;  and 3)- property; but the technical Buddhist sense, as will be seen from the above, is something more than this.

(***) – It is the perception of this fact which is the Dhammakakkhu, the Eye of Truth, or the Eye for Qualities as it might be rendered with reference ot the maning of Dhamma in the words that follow.  They are in Pali yamkinki samudaya-dhammam, sabbam tam nirodha-dhammam, literally, ‘whatever has the quality of beginning, that has the quality of ceasing’.

_______________________

(To be continued)

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Buddha Dhamma-Kakka-Ppavattana-Sutta ”The Foundation of the Kingdom of  Righteousness’  translated from the Pali by T.W. Rhys-Davids, Oxford University Press, London, 1881).

 

SOME SAYINGS OF THE BUDDHA – According to the Pali Canon – IV –
May 9, 2010

THE CAUSE OF ILL

   Now the Exalted One, Gautama Buddha thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

‘Through not understanding, through not penetrating the Four Ariyan truths, Bhikkhus, we have run on and wandered round this long, long journey (of rebirth),   both you and I.  What are those four?

   The Ariyan Truth of Ill;  the Ariyan Truth of the Arising of Ill;  the Ariyan Truth of the Ceasing of Ill;  the Ariyan Truth of the Way leading to the Ceasing of Ill.

   But,  Bhikkhus, when these Four Ariyan Truths are understood and penetrated, then is uprooted the craving for existence, cut off is the thread that leadeth to rebirth, then is there no more coming to be.’

   Thus spake Gautama Buddha, the  Exalted One.  When the Happy One had thus spoken, He added this further:

   Blind to the Fourfold Ariyan Truths of things,  and blind to see things as they really are,  long was our journeying through divers births.  Gone is the cord of life when these are seen.  No more becoming when Ill’s root is cut.’

 

SOME SAYINGS OF THE BUDDHA – According to the Pali Canon – III –
May 6, 2010

ANALYSIS OF THE EIGHTFOLD PATH

Our Lord Gautama Buddha, The Exalted One, said;

   ‘Now what, Bhikkhus, is Right Belief?

   The knowledge about Suffering, the Arising of Suffering, the Ceasing of Suffering, and the Way leading to the ceasing of Suffering – that, Bhikkhus, is called Right Belief.

   And what, Bhikkhus, is Right Intention?

   The being set on Renunciation, on Non-resentment, on Harmlessness – that, Bhikkhus, is called Right Intention.

   And what, Bhikkhus, is Right Speech?

   Abstinence from lying speech, from backbiting and abusive speech, and from idle babble – that, Bhikkhus, is called Right Speech.

   And what, Bhikkhus, is Right Action?

   Abstinence from taking life, from taking what is not given, from wrong-doing in sexual passions – that, Bhikkhus, is called Right Action.

   And what, Bhikkhus, is Right Living?

   Herein, Bhikkhus, the Ariyan brother,  giving up wrong living, gets his livelihood by right living – that Bhikkhus, is called Right Living.

    And what, Bhikkhus, is Right Effort?

   Herein, Bhikkhus, a brother generates the will to inhibit the arising of evil immoral conditions that have not yet arisen; he makes an effort, he sets energy afoot, he applies his mind and struggles.  Likewise (he does the same) to reject evil immoral conditions that have already arisen. Likewise  (he does the same) to cause the arising of good conditions that have not yet arisen.  Likewise he does the same to establish, to prevent the corruption, to cause the increase, the practice, the fulfilment of good conditions that have already arisen.  This, Bhikkhus, is called Right Effort.

   And what, Bhikkhus, is Right Mindfulness?

    Herein, Bhikkhus, a brother dwells regarding body as a compound, he dwells ardent, self-possessed, recollected, by controlling the covetousness and dejection that are in the world.  So also with regard to Feelings, with regard to Perception, with regard to the Activities… with regard to Thought.  This, Bhikkhus, is called Right Mindfulness.

   And what, Bhikkhus, is Right Meditation?

   Herein, Bhikkhus, a brother, remote from sensual appetites, remote from evil conditions, enters upon and abides in the First Trance, which is accompanied by directed thought and sustained thought (on an object).  It is born of solitude, full of zest and happiness.
  
   Then, by the sinking down of thought directed and sustained, he enters on and abides in the Second Trance, which is an inner calming, a raising up of the will.  In it there is no directed thought, no sustained thought.  It is born of contemplation, full of zest and happiness.
  
   Then again, Bhikkhus, by the fading away of the zest, he becomes balanced (indifferent) and remains mindful and self-possessed, and while still in the body he experiences the happines of which the Ariyans aver  “the balanced thoughtul man dwells happily.”  Thus he enters on the Third Trance and abides therein.
 
   Then again, Bhikkhus, rejecting pleasure and pain, by the coming to an end of the joy and sorrow which he had before, he enters on and remains in the Fourth Trance, which is free from pain and free from pleasure, but is a state of perfect purity of balance and equanimity.  This is called Right Meditation.

   This, Bhikkhus, is called the Ariyan Truth of the Way leading to the End of Suffering.  –  [Digha-Nikaya, ii.312].

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(To be continued).