SOME SAYINGS OF THE BUDDHA – According to the Pali Canon – III –

ANALYSIS OF THE EIGHTFOLD PATH

Our Lord Gautama Buddha, The Exalted One, said;

   ‘Now what, Bhikkhus, is Right Belief?

   The knowledge about Suffering, the Arising of Suffering, the Ceasing of Suffering, and the Way leading to the ceasing of Suffering – that, Bhikkhus, is called Right Belief.

   And what, Bhikkhus, is Right Intention?

   The being set on Renunciation, on Non-resentment, on Harmlessness – that, Bhikkhus, is called Right Intention.

   And what, Bhikkhus, is Right Speech?

   Abstinence from lying speech, from backbiting and abusive speech, and from idle babble – that, Bhikkhus, is called Right Speech.

   And what, Bhikkhus, is Right Action?

   Abstinence from taking life, from taking what is not given, from wrong-doing in sexual passions – that, Bhikkhus, is called Right Action.

   And what, Bhikkhus, is Right Living?

   Herein, Bhikkhus, the Ariyan brother,  giving up wrong living, gets his livelihood by right living – that Bhikkhus, is called Right Living.

    And what, Bhikkhus, is Right Effort?

   Herein, Bhikkhus, a brother generates the will to inhibit the arising of evil immoral conditions that have not yet arisen; he makes an effort, he sets energy afoot, he applies his mind and struggles.  Likewise (he does the same) to reject evil immoral conditions that have already arisen. Likewise  (he does the same) to cause the arising of good conditions that have not yet arisen.  Likewise he does the same to establish, to prevent the corruption, to cause the increase, the practice, the fulfilment of good conditions that have already arisen.  This, Bhikkhus, is called Right Effort.

   And what, Bhikkhus, is Right Mindfulness?

    Herein, Bhikkhus, a brother dwells regarding body as a compound, he dwells ardent, self-possessed, recollected, by controlling the covetousness and dejection that are in the world.  So also with regard to Feelings, with regard to Perception, with regard to the Activities… with regard to Thought.  This, Bhikkhus, is called Right Mindfulness.

   And what, Bhikkhus, is Right Meditation?

   Herein, Bhikkhus, a brother, remote from sensual appetites, remote from evil conditions, enters upon and abides in the First Trance, which is accompanied by directed thought and sustained thought (on an object).  It is born of solitude, full of zest and happiness.
  
   Then, by the sinking down of thought directed and sustained, he enters on and abides in the Second Trance, which is an inner calming, a raising up of the will.  In it there is no directed thought, no sustained thought.  It is born of contemplation, full of zest and happiness.
  
   Then again, Bhikkhus, by the fading away of the zest, he becomes balanced (indifferent) and remains mindful and self-possessed, and while still in the body he experiences the happines of which the Ariyans aver  “the balanced thoughtul man dwells happily.”  Thus he enters on the Third Trance and abides therein.
 
   Then again, Bhikkhus, rejecting pleasure and pain, by the coming to an end of the joy and sorrow which he had before, he enters on and remains in the Fourth Trance, which is free from pain and free from pleasure, but is a state of perfect purity of balance and equanimity.  This is called Right Meditation.

   This, Bhikkhus, is called the Ariyan Truth of the Way leading to the End of Suffering.  –  [Digha-Nikaya, ii.312].

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(To be continued).

 

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